The UPSC Civil Services Exam includes an optional subject in Kashmiri Literature, a language used in the Kashmir Valley of Jammu & Kashmir, as well as parts of Punjab and Delhi. Recognized as an official language of India by the eighth schedule of the Constitution, Kashmiri is written in Persian script in the IAS Exam.

Prospective candidates should review the syllabus for the Kashmiri Literature option in the UPSC Mains exam, which is divided into two papers: Paper-I and Paper-II. Those with fluency in Kashmiri are encouraged to consider this option. The UPSC Kashmiri Literature booklist is a helpful resource for candidates to consult, as it provides a comprehensive list of books and reference materials.

The syllabus also focuses on the cultural and social background of Kashmiri literature and its contribution to Indian literature. As per the syllabus, candidates are expected to comprehensively understand the language, its grammar, vocabulary, and syntax.

Kashmiri Literature is worth 500 marks, split between two papers, each worth 250 in the UPSC Mains exam. Please see the linked article for additional information on similar optional subject syllabi. Aspiring candidates are advised to also consult the recommended UPSC Kashmiri Literature booklist to prepare for the IAS exam.

Kashmiri Optional Paper 1

(Answers must be written in Kashmiri)

Section A

1. Genealogical relationship of the Kashmiri language: various theories.

2. Areas of occurence and dialects (geographical/social)

3. Phonology and grammar:
i. Vowel and consonant system;
ii. Nouns and pronouns with various case inflections;
iii. Verbs: various types and tenses.

4. Syntactic structure:
i. Simple, active and declarative statements;
ii. Coordination;
iii. Relativisation.

Section B

1. Kashmiri literature in the 14th century (Socio-cultural and intellectual background with special reference to Lal Dyad and Sheikhul Alam).

2. Nineteenth century Kashmiri literature (development of various genres : vatsun; ghazal and mathnavi.

3. Kashmiri literature in the first half of the twentieth century (with special reference to Mahjoor and Azad; various literary influences).

4. Modern Kashmiri literature (with special reference to the development of the short story, drama, novel and nazm).

Kashmiri Optional Paper 2

(Answers must be written in Kashmiri)

Section A

1. Intensive study of Kashmiri poetry up to the nineteenth century :
(i) Lal Dyad,
(ii) Sheikhul Aalam
(iii) Habba Khatoon

2. Kashmiri poetry : 19th Century
(i) Mahmood Gami (Vatsans)
(ii) Maqbool shah (Gulrez)
(iii) Rasool Mir (Ghazals)
(iv) Abdul Ahad Nadim (N’at)
(v) Krishanjoo Razdan (Shiv Lagun)
(vi) Sufi Poets (Test in Sanglaab, published by the Deptt. of Kashmiri, University of Kashmir)

3. Twentieth Century Kashmiri poetry (text in Azich Kashir Shairi, published by the Deptt. of Kashmiri, University of Kashmir).

4. Literary criticism and research work : development and various trends.

Section B

1. An analytical study of the short story in Kashmiri.
(i) Afsana Majmu’a, published by the Deptt. of Kashmiri, University of Kashmir.
(ii) Kashur Afsana Az, published by the Sahitya Akademi.
(iii) Hamasar Kashur Afsana, published by the Sahitya Akademi.
The following short story writers only : Akhtar Mohi-ud Din, Kamil, Hari Krishan Kaul, Hraday Kaul Bharti, Bansi Nirdosh, Gulshan Majid.

2. Novel in Kashmiri :
(i) Mujrim by G. N. Gowhar
(ii) Marun—Ivan Ilyichun, (Kashmiri version of Tolstoy’s) The Death of Ivan Ilyich (published by Kashmiri Deptt.)

3. Drama in Kashmiri :
(i) Natuk Kariv Band by Hari Krishan Kaul
(ii) Qk Angy Natuk, ed. Motilal Keemu, published by the Sahitya Akademi.
(iii) Razi Oedipus, tr. Naji Munawar, published by the Sahitya Akademi.

4. Kashmiri Folk Literature :
(i) Kashur Luki Theatre by Mohammad Subhan Bhagat, published by the Deptt. of Kashmiri, University of Kashmir.
(ii) Kashiry Luki Beeth (all volumes) published by the J&K Cultural Akademy

UPSC Kashmiri Optional Syllabus PDF